Carbon-14, or radiocarbon, is a naturally occurring radioactive isotope that forms when cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere strike nitrogen molecules, which then oxidize to become carbon dioxide.
Green plants absorb the carbon dioxide, so the population of carbon-14 molecules is continually replenished until the plant dies.
Until this century, relative dating was the only technique for identifying the age of a truly ancient object.
By examining the object's relation to layers of deposits in the area, and by comparing the object to others found at the site, archaeologists can estimate when the object arrived at the site.
Scott et al, the dates for Arizona (3 x IEM EEM ) and Oxford (EEM), are OUT of range. Scott at a Shroud Symposium in New York, I asked her in writing, to verify the I asked the British Museum for some explications. Morven Leese explained the LOW Arizona errors as follows : Arizona did not send in FOUR, but EIGHT "paired" dates, each pair measured the same day, with the same set of standards and blanks.
Thermoluminescence dating: this method is associated with the effect of the high energy radiation emitted as a result of the decay or radioactive impurities.
Radiocarbon dating: radioactive carbon decays to nitrogen with a half-life of 5730 years.
In dead material, the decayed 14C is not replaced and its concentration in the object decreases slowly.
Even an EXACT measurement is still due, to some extent, to chance. The MAXIMUM Chi^2 test value for 95% confidence and (3-1) degrees of freedom is 5.99.
Statistical analysis enables the analyst, to determine, with a pre-determined degree of confidence, (here claimed to be at least 95% ) the degree of variations which are due to chance and to known and unknown influences. Theoretically, if the calculated Chi^2 test value could have occurred only by chance, with a probability LESS than that selected, then the set of data would be considered as being DIFFERENT.